Autism Information

Paper  title : Autism Information
       Autism is a complex disorder that typically lasts throughout a person's lifetime. It occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups. Family income, lifestyle, and educational levels do not affect the chance of autism's occurrence Common conditions experienced are seizures, chronic constipation or diarrhea, mental retardation, sleep problems, eating non-food items called pica, low muscle tone, and sensory sensitivities.
       According to the American Academy of Pediatrics about ( 258 ) of children will seem to have normal development until about 18 months, after which they will gradually or suddenly:
1.     Stop talking (if they had begun to say a few words).
2.     Stop waving good bye.
3.     Stop turning their heads when their names are called.
4.     Withdraw into a shell and seem more distant and less interested in their surroundings. 
Children diagnosed with autism who seemed to develop normally but then started to show autistic symptoms have the type of autism called regression or going backward in development Children who show autistic symptoms since birth have the type of autism called classic. Indications for immediate evaluation include:
1.     No smiling by six months of age.
2.     No babbling, pointing, reaching or waving by 12 months.
3.     No single words by 16 months.
4.     No two word phrases by 24 months.
5.     Shows inappropriate response to affection, resists cuddling when picked up he arches his back instead.
 
      Once on uncommon disorder, the incidence of autism is now occurring at epidemic proportions around the world. During the 1970's about one in 10,000 children developed autism. About five years ago, the Center received the word that the rate was 1 in 150 for children in the US born in 1994 For children born in 1996 the rate was 1 in 100, an increases of 50% between these two birth years. Last year the rate was 1 in 88 for those born in 2005.
The latest statistics from the us Are 1 in 50 school aged children has autism in the US according to  the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This rate is for those children born in 2007. It is frightening to think what the rate for children being born today will be. If you think the autism rate in the US is high, a recent study by South Korean and American researches reports an astonishing high rate among Korean children of 1 in 38.
    Right now the estimates in the Kingdom are 200,000 – 300,000 autistic individuals. Most of them are boys who will never grow up to be the head of a housed. If this epidemic doesn't subside and continues  to get worse, think what that means for the future. There will be fewer and fewer men capable of supporting a family. There will have to be more female doctors, dentists, airplane, pilots, professors, government officials, etc to fill in the vacancies.
some interesting studies from the autism research review international from 2011 and 2012 are:
  1. Studies show that viral infection during the first trimester of prenatal development is a risk factor for autism.  
  2.  Mothers who have fevers during pregnancy are more than twice as likely to have a child with an autism disorder or developmental delay.
  3. The use of antidepressants by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of autism.
  4. Younger siblings of children with autism exhibit a high rate of autism-related  behaviors, a new study reports.    
  5. Several studies have tentatively linked the drug terbutaline, used to treat  preterm labor, to autism, terbutalin exposure  for more than two days during the third trimester was associated with more than a fourfold increased risk for autism.
  6. The grandchildren of people with a history of pink disease caused by mercury  toxicity are at elevated risk for autism   Survivors of pink disease, a common  condition in the first half of the 1900s when parents used mercury – laden teething  powders, had symptoms that included loss of speech, hypersensitivity  to light, lethargy, irritability, pain, and a characteristic bright pink color of the hands and feet. One in 25 grandchildren of pink disease survivors has been   diagnosed   with autism.
  7. It's no secret that we are living in an increasingly toxic world. The environment is toxic, babies are born with a toxic burden from the mother. This body burden is called pollution in people. At this time in human history, mothers' bodies have become very toxic. The Autism Research Review International 2005 had a study titled  "Unborn Babies Exposed to Hundreds of Chemicals." The umbilical cord blood taken from babies in 2004 in US. hospitals was collected after the cord was cut, harbored pesticides, consumer product ingredients and wastes from burning coal , gasoline, and garbage. Of the total 287 chemicals found :180 cause cancer in humans or animals, 217 are toxic to the brain and nervous system, and 208 cause birth defects or abnormal development in animal tests. Among the chemicals found in blood were mercury and fire retardants. Not long ago scientists thought    the placenta shielded cord blood and the developing baby from most chemicals and pollutants in the environment. The dangers of pre-or post-natal exposure to this complex mixture of carcinogens, developmental toxins, and neurotoxins have never been studied.
  8. A study done in 2008 supports the theory that children with autism have difficulty excreting toxic elements such as mercury. "The major difference in the medical histories of the children with autism that they studied was that they had a much higher usage of antibiotics during their first 18 months of life". This is very important since a study of rats found that oral antibiotics almost completely stop the excretion of mercury.The higher rate of antibiotic use by this autistic group is consistent with data from threes other studies showing an elevated use of oral antibiotics in children with autism.  Ethyl mercury in thimerosal is one of the most toxic substances on earth. Thimerosal is a vaccine preservative that is nearly 50 percent mercury. For over 70 years it has been in the vaccines.Mercury – containing hepatitis B for newborns was added in the early 1990's. It is present in the flu vaccine as well as flu vaccine given to pregnant women. A proposal set forth by the United Nations to ban ethyl mercury from all medications and vaccines worldwide was held in January  2013. They proposed a global binding treaty. The American Academy of Pediatrics says this preservative plays a critical role in the distribution  of vaccine to The global community the UN's final decision was to exclude thimerosal from the treaty. There is more mercury in the brains of autistic children. This mercury causes neural degeneration. Also, there has yet to be studies showing the neurotoxiC effects when thimerosal is combined with aluminum which is neurotoxin and a common vaccine ingredient. 
    The new criteria for autism was formalized in May 2013 when the Diagnostic and  Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Version 5 (DSM-V) was published by the American Psychiatric Association. This new definition of autism will be the accepted standard of diagnosis utilized by professionals in the fields of medicine, psychiatry, psychology, education, etc. The DSM-V  will use a much narrower definition of autism than the criteria that was published in the DSM-IV in 1994. Two sub-categories of autism, Asperger's syndrome and PDD-NOS (pervasive development disorder not otherwise specified) will be eliminated. Fred VolkmaR a well known autism expert at Yale,  concluded that as many as half of those diagnosed with autism will be excluded.For those who will no longer fit the criteria for autism, there is speculation that they will be re-diagnosed as having some other disorder such as antisocial personality disorder, obsessive- compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, or social communication disorder. Another related issue involves diagnostic assessment tools. There are several valid and reliable diagnostic instruments that are used to diagnose autism, such as:
    - Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale(ADOS)    
    - Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised   
    - Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)
These assessment tools will need to be revised to reflect the changes in the DSM-V, There will need to be research to evaluate their validity and reliability: this in itself might take years to complete. 
There are no blood or biologic tests for autism, so diagnosis is not an exact science. It's identified by making judgments about a child's behavior.If a child is diagnosed with autism, early intervention is critical to gain maximum benefit from existing therapies. Research indicates that early intervention in an appropriate education setting for at least two years during the preschool years can result in significant improvements for many young children with autism spectrum disorders. Effective programs focus on developing communication, social and cognitive skills.